Diet & Nutrition

Part of this class is service work. Beginning next week we will meet with various places to find which company has a need which works with Diet & Nutrition.

Daily needs requirement
2600 kcal/day
85 grams of fat
60 grams of proteins
250 grams of carbohydrates
240 milligrams cholesterol
30 grams fiber
40-55 grams sugar/day

Walking is the best way to lose weight.

Nutrients-nourishing substances we derive from food.
Chronic-24 hour/day or long lasting
Saiety-fullness or satisfaction
Hunger-physical desire to eat
Appetite-physiological desire to eat
Moderation-portion size

Classes of nutrients

Water  (In cold weather you need to hydrate more)

Settings for Refrigerator 42 degrees, Freezer 32 degrees, and water heater 120 degrees

What affects appetite?
water, health, exercise, smell, texture, mood, metabolism, medication, visualization, stress, hormones, gender, environment, ads and restaurants.

Animal fats are good for you.  Ten Things you need to know about losing weight.

Phytochemicals  Chemicals in plant variety is good things  Which fight cardiovascular disease and cancer – brightly colored from fruits & veggies green leaf vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grain LDL microgreens


Functional foods:  foods which provide health benefits & nutrients above & beyond what is found in foods
Superfood:  brightly colored berries, *avocado, acai berries & juice, broccoli, eggs

*Nutrient dense:  has more nutrient needs than energy needs ex. fruits & veggies

Energy dense:  provides more energy needs than nutrients needs ex. cheese, cakes, cookies, chips

serving equivalents

palm in the your hand = 3 oz
thumb = 1 oz
matchbox = 1 oz
bar of soap = 3 oz
ice cream scoop = 1/2 cup
tennis ball = med serving
yoyo or hockey puck = 1 bagel
golf ball = 2 Tbs.

Designing a diet

  1. Aim for fitness
  2. Build a healthy base
  3. choose sensibly

serving size
k/cal per serving
Fat content: saturated; unsaturated; transfat

  1. 90% heart disease from trans fat  ex. margarine

RDA, Country of Origin    BMI bad tool

Nutritional state

  1. anthropometric measurements – heights, weight, circumference
  2. biochemical analysis
  3. physical analysis 3 or 4 hours
  4. dietary analysis
    1. desirable nutrition – adequate amounts to sustain body system
    2. over nutrition – exceed nutrients amounts that the body doesn’t need
    3. under nutrition (malnutrition) nutrient needs are not adequate to sustain body systems
  5. economic analysis
    1. rat healthy/day $36.75
    2. unhealthy/day $17.75

Subclinical deficiency – showing no outward symptoms

Clinical symptoms- look at eyes (sclera), observe hair, nail beds (Anorexia), tongue pinkest color, no odor or no film; skin (dehydration if skin when doesn’t go back dehydration).

Sugar-free – less than 0.5 grams per serving
High fiber – 5 grams are more/serving
Enriched or fortified – vitamin & nutrients added in excess of 10%
Lean – less than 10 grams of fat, 95 mg cholesterol, 4.5 grams saturated
Organic – no fertilizers, hormones, antibodies, irradiation or sewage sludge

The Human Body

Nutritional Diseases with a genetic link

IBS, IBD, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s
arthritis, osteoporosis
kidney disease
behavioral problems/mental disease

GI Flow Chart

  1. mouth
  2. esophagus
  3. stomach (1 liter capacity)  Remains here up to 3 hours
  4. small intestine  Absorption of nutrients Food is here about 3 hours
  5. large intestines  Water reabsorption Feces formation Food remains here 72 hours
  6. rectum
  7. anus

Probiotics – microbes which inhabit our guts


Alleviates lactose intolerance
reduce risk of colon cancer
boost the immune system ex. fruto-oligosacharides

Good dairy sourced

Example of probiotic bacteria

  1. lacto bachillus
  2. acidophilus
  3. bifidos

dysbiosis imbalance between good & bad microbes in our gut

Prebiotics – the food tat feed the probiotic microbes

Aromatic foods – onions, garlic, mushrooms & leeks, berries, grains, artichokes

Food labels

fructans, inulin, galactin, pectin, plants

Whole grains

Grains that have the husk intact.  The outer husk contains all of the grains (95%) + fiber; 80% of the grain vitamins & mineral


  1. alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance
  2. help in the treatment of Type II Diabetes
  3. helps in cancer
  4. help in colon, prostrate cancer
  5. reduce obesity

3 servings per day is recommended
serving size
1 slice of bread
1 bagel
4 pancakes (4″)
6 crackers
medium bowl of grits or oatmeal

symbol for whole grain

whole grain

#1 staple food worldwide
80% of the rice in grown here
27 varieties and color


  1. contains 15 vitamins & minerals (B vitamins & folate)
  2. no cholesterol
  3. no trans fat
  4. no salt
  5. resistant starch, not converted to sugar
  6. slowly digested starch – has a slow, gradual rise in blood glucose levels

Wild rice is seeds of marsh plants that grow in sandy bottom lakes – very prominent in Mid-West, staple of Native American diets for centuries

*Proteins 50-65 grams/day


  1. transport “O2 & Iron”
  2. hormones
  3. enzymes
  4. visual process
  5. immune system
  6. clotting
  7. fluid balance
  8. glucose formation
  9. energy – 4k/day

*Building blocks of proteins are amino acids.  These are 20 in total.  Body make 11 non essential.  Essential 9 amino acids

*All or None Principle – All essential acids must be present or no amino acids can be mode or used.



high quality or complete protein contains all nine of the amino acids

low quality or incomplete proteins lacks 1 or more amino acids

altering the three dimensional structure of protein

  1. acid
  2. salt
  3. cooking heat
  4. shaken or agitate

Most protein dense food is?  Tuna  Followed by Eggs, avocado, whole milk, hard cheeses

Can too much protein cause harm?
* increase calcium loss
increase cardiovascular disease
links to colon cancer

Can too little cause harm?
muscle weakness
Disease marasmus (insufficient protein in daily diet)  long term deficiency
victims have extreme muscle loss, fatigue, little or no fat stores, death can occur

Carbohydrates 4 k cal grams of energy

Provide energy & structure 3 main groups

  1. monosaccharides 1 sugar subunit
    1. glucose (dextrose)
    2. fructose (fruit sugar)
  2. disaccharides 2 sugar subunit
    1. sucrose (table sugar)
    2. lactose (dairy)
    3. maltose (starches)
  3. polysaccharides 3 or more sugar subunits
    1. cellulose
    2. starch
    3. chitin

phytobezoars Dietary fiber 60 grams/day     An excess of dietary fiber can lead to the formation of fiber ball in the stomach   Can cause blockage of stomach & small intestines & can lead to death


  1. Reduce obesity
  2. decrease the risk of colon cancer
  3. decrease the risk of diverticulitis
  4. decrease of cardiovascular disease


*Honey most prefect food; cannot spoil biocide especially against bacteria; don’t use with kids up to 18-20 months; contains spores of clostridium botulinum

  1. nutritive provide energy for the body
    ex. sugars, sugar alcohols, sucrose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol (sugarless & dietetic candies)
  2. Alternative doesn’t provide energy for the body (no health issues)
    1. saccharin (diet drinks)
    2. aspartame (NutraSweet when added to food; equal when sold as a powder)
    3. acesulfame-K (gum, powder drink)
    4. cyclamate (in Canada)
    5. sucralose 600x sweeter than sucrose

Ways to reduce simple sugar intake

  1. eat fresh fruit or fruits packed in light syrup
  2. buy fewer foods high in sugar (prepared baked goods)
  3. buy reduced fat microwavable popcorn
  4. use more homemade items
  5. cut back on sugar punches or pops

Carbs – Fiber

1/3 of all plant matter is made of cellulose (polysaccharide).  It consists of several hundred to 10,000 glucose subunits.  These glucose subunits are held together by beta-glycosidic bonds.  Our human digestive system cannot easily breakdown cellulose.  Our body each an enzyme called cellulase that breaks down cellulose.  Human have amylase (enzyme).  Amylase will practically breakdown in glycosidic bonds cellulose.  It breaks the bonds in Alpha 1,4 & Alpha 1,6.

Types of fibers


  1. metabolically inert, influence absorption of nutrients  (contain water) Act as scrub brush
  2. lower GI tract, prevent diverticula & colon cancer
  3. contain water will absorb excess water that is present & swell – soften the stool


  1. Fibers made of polysaccharide such as pectin Found between plant cell wall layers

It is somewhat gelatin like.  What it does is form a gel-like suspension in the blood.  This suspension, also, slows down the absorption of carbohydrates.  Thus, preventing a rapid upswing of blood glucose.

Why do we get gas from ingest fibers?
Fermentation is occurring in your gut by bacteria & by product of this process in Carbon Dioxide gas.
Folic Acid


  1. Essential organic substances needed in small amounts
  2. individual units that are linked together
  3. yield no energy
  4. aid enzymes that participate in energy release
  5. a few are made in our body, but in very small amounts (biotin, D, K, niacin)

2 main groups

  1. water soluble dissolve in water, move directly into the blood, travel freely in the blood   Bs, C, thiamin, folate, riboflavin
  2. fat soluble dissolve in ether or benzene enter the lymph, then enters the blood.  It does not travel freely.  Needs a transport protein  A,D, E, K

Tips for preserving the vitamin content in food.

  1. Keep fruits & vegetables cool
  2. Refrigerate in moisture proof container
  3. Avoid & cutting unless serving 3 or 4 hours
  4. microwave, steam or wok cook
  5. no baking soda to vegetables


Not regulated by the Federal government.  A voluntary organization USP (US Pharmacoepiae) USP standards – quality, purity, dissolution, strength

Cannot make a specific health claim.  Ex. Lower blood pressure
They can make a general health claim.  Ex. Improves general cardiovascular health.

Amino Acid

There is no PABA (para amino benzoic) or Bee Pollen.

Vitamin D

If you acquire vitamin D as a supplement in food, it must be processed by the liver and kidneys.  Once it is processed it is now in an active form.  In its active form, it’s no longer vitamin, but a hormone.  In this hormonal stage, it can turn genes on and off.

Heart, brain, immune system all contain vitamin D receptors and what the vitamin does in these places is it protects as anti-inflammatory product and immune boosting capabilities.  15-30 minutes of sun exposure = 10,000 IU’s of Vitamin D.


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